PCLL Conversion Notes  PCLL Conversion Notes - HK Land Law

What's in the Hong Kong Land Law Notes & Model Exam Answers (Past Paper Answers)?

Our Hong Kong Land Law Notes & Model Exam Answers (Past Paper Answers) will provide you with a clear and complete synthesis of the most important points you need for your Hong Kong Land Law PCLL Conversion exam. The table of contents of our Hong Kong Land Law Notes & Model Exam Answers (Past Paper Answers) is shown below.

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Table of Contents for Hong Kong Land Law Notes


1.   Introduction.. 6

A.    How to use Conversion Notes. 6

B.    Abbreviations. 6

2.   Definitions and Formalities. 6

A.    Form of land title in HK.. 6

i.          Leasehold tenure. 6

ii.         Freehold Tenure. 6

B.    What is land?. 6

i.          Legal Estates. 7

ii.         Equitable interests. 7

iii.        Easement 7

1)       Claims to easement 7

2)       Multi-storey buildings. 7

iv.        Fixtures. 7

1)       Objective intention. 7

2)       Presumption of fixture. 7

3)       Presumption of chattel 8

4)       Part and parcel test 8

C.    Written agreement for the disposition of land.. 8

i.          Essential terms. 8

ii.         Agreement subject to contract 8

iii.        Exchange. 8

iv.        Deposit 8

v.         Conditional contracts. 9

D.   Oral contract supported by sufficient memorandum in writing.. 9

i.          Form.. 9

ii.         Content 9

iii.        Joinder of documents. 9

iv.        Signature. 9

E.    Oral contract absent sufficient written memorandum... 9

i.          Enforce by Statute. 9

ii.         Part performance. 9

1)       In performance of concluded contract 9

2)       Point to some contract 10

3)       Must first show part performance. 10

4)       Fraud. 10

F.     Formalities. 10

i.          Legal estates. 10

ii.         Equitable interest 10

iii.        Trusts. 10

G.    Interests at will 10

3.   Priority & Registration.. 10

A.    Registration of deeds. 10

i.          Vacation. 10

ii.         Manner of Registration. 11

B.    Registrable instruments. 11

i.          Deeds and conveyances. 11

ii.         Other instruments in writing. 11

1)       Non-registrable interests subsumed by later written instrument 11

iii.        Judgments. 11

1)       Charging orders. 11

iv.        Lis Pendens relating to land. 11

1)       Relating to land. 12

C.    Priority of registered instruments. 12

i.          Instruments and judgments. 12

ii.         Lis pendens and charging orders. 12

iii.        Expiration. 12

D.   Non-registration of registrable instruments. 12

i.          Bona fide/good faith. 12

ii.         For Valuable consideration. 12

E.    Leases and options. 13

i.          Written options. 13

ii.         Unwritten options. 13

F.     Parol Evidence Rule. 13

G.    Unregistrable interests - Common Law Priority rules. 13

H.   Bona Fide Purchaser for Value Without Notice. 13

i.          Bona fide. 13

ii.         For Value. 13

iii.        Notice. 13

1)       Actual notice. 13

2)       Avoidance of notice. 13

3)       Constructive notice. 14

4)       Constructive notice and duty to make enquiries. 14

I.      Unregistrable interests - Common Law Equities/unwritten equities. 14

i.          Advancement of money to discharge loan. 14

ii.         Lien. 14

iii.        Oral agreement 15

iv.        Trust 15

J.     Land titles Ordinance. 15

4.   Partition of Land in Joint Ownership. 15

A.    Partition Ordinance. 15

i.          Tong and tso land. 15

ii.         Parties to proceedings. 15

iii.        Court inquiries. 16

iv.        Principles for exercising discretion under section 2. 16

v.         Order for partition. 16

vi.        Order for sale. 16

vii.       Proceeds of sale. 16

viii.      Buy out 16

ix.        No order 17

5.   Adverse Possession.. 17

A.    Limitation ordinance. 17

i.          Time begins to run. 17

ii.         Accrual of right for landlords. 17

iii.        Time stops running. 17

iv.        Aggregation of periods of adverse possession. 18

v.         Renewal or Extension of New Territory leases. 18

B.    Conditions for Adverse Possession.. 18

i.          Factual possession. 18

ii.         Intention to possess not to dispossess (not intention to own) 18

iii.        “Adverse” possession. 18

1)       Licence. 18

2)       Lawful title. 18

3)       Mortgage. 18

4)       Lease. 18

iv.        Owner’s intentions. 18

C.    Effects of Possessory title. 19

i.          Lessee remains liable under the lease. 19

ii.         Fairweather v St Marylebone Property. 19

D.   Co-owners and Adverse Possession.. 19

6.   Government Leases and Conditions. 19

A.    Terminology. 19

i.          Lots. 19

ii.         Sections. 19

iii.        Subdivision. 19

B.    Land disposal 20

i.          Private treaty grants. 20

ii.         Grants subject to conditions. 20

iii.        Conditions of sale, grant, regrant, extension or exchange. 20

C.    Restriction and obligations. 20

D.   Nature of ownership.. 20

i.          Equitable interest 20

ii.         Legal interest 20

1)       Compliance. 21

iii.        Vendor’s title. 21

E.    Nature of Government Leases. 21

i.          HK Island, Kowloon and New Kowloon. 21

ii.         New Territories. 21

1)       Duration of Block Government Leases. 21

F.     Terms of lease. 22

i.          Standard Terms. 22

ii.         The Design Disposition and Height Clause. 22

1)       User restrictions. 22

2)       Repair 22

3)       Offensive trade clause. 22

G.    Obligation of the Government under the Lease. 22

i.          Covenant for quiet enjoyment 22

ii.         Non-derogation from grant 23

H.   Modification of Government Leases. 23

i.          Express Waiver 23

ii.         Implied Waiver 23

1)       Waiver by acquiescence. 23

iii.        Waiver of breach of covenant vs Waiver of covenant 24

iv.        Estoppel 24

I.      Termination of Government Lease. 24

i.          Resumption. 24

ii.         Right of re-entry/forfeiture. 24

1)       Relief against forfeiture. 24

2)       Vendor’s title. 24

7.   The System of multi-unit development ownership in Hong Kong. 25

A.    Deed of Mutual Covenant 25

i.          Sub-DMC. 25

B.    subsequent purchaser 25

i.          Subject to DMC and Sub-DMC. 25

ii.         Allocation and reallocation of shares. 25

1)       Increasing shares. 25

2)       Pairing shares. 25

C.    Exclusive possession.. 25

i.          Demonstration of exclusive possession. 26

ii.         Common area. 26

D.   Common Terms in DMCs. 26

i.          Express terms. 26

ii.         Covenants implied into the DMC by the Building Management Ordinance. 26

E.    Principles of enforceability of Covenant in DMC.. 26

i.          Covenants run with the land. 26

ii.         Owner not party to covenant 26

iii.        Positive and negative covenants. 27

1)       Positive covenants. 27

2)       Doctrine of Halsall v Brizell 27

iv.        Registration. 27

v.         Touch and concern the land. 27

1)       Personal covenants. 27

2)       Enforcing personal covenants. 27

vi.        Burden of covenant expressed or intended to run with the land. 27

1)       Breaches of successors in title. 28

vii.       Expressed and intended to benefit 28

1)       Expressed and intended to be made with the covenantee. 28

2)       Benefit the land. 28

viii.      Retain the land. 28

F.     Enforcement of the DMC and Remedies. 28

i.          Non-payment of management fees. 28

ii.         Remedies for breaches of other covenants. 29

1)       Injunctions. 29

2)       Damages. 29

iii.        Defences. 29

8.   Small House Policy. 29

A.    Free Building License. 29

B.    Private Treaty Grant 29

C.    Certificates of exemption.. 29

i.          Failure to obtain certificate. 29

ii.         Effect of certificate. 29

D.   Restrictions on alienation.. 29

i.          Alienation. 30

1)       Premium - Private Treaty Grant 30

2)       Premium - Free Building License. 30

ii.         Vendor’s title. 30

E.    Showing good title to New Territory Land.. 30

9.   Chinese Customary Trust - Tsos & Tongs. 30

A.    Tso.. 30

B.    Tong.. 30

C.    Creation of trust 30

i.          Tso. 30

ii.         Tong. 31

D.   Management of tsos and tongs. 31

i.          Legal status. 31

ii.         Appointment of manager 31

E.    Regulation of dealings. 31

i.          Appointment of manager registered after completion date. 31

ii.         Execution of instrument 32

iii.        Leases. 32

F.     Dealings by the manager 32

i.          Objections. 32

ii.         Instrument to be executed in the presence of the district officer 32

G.    Applicable laws. 32

i.          Land. 32

ii.         Perpetuity rules. 32

H.   Chinese customary trusts and adverse possession.. 32

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