PCLL Conversion Notes  PCLL Conversion Notes - HK Legal System

What's in the Hong Kong Legal System Notes & Model Exam Answers (Past Paper Answers)?

Our Hong Kong Legal System Notes & Model Exam Answers (Past Paper Answers) will provide you with a clear and complete synthesis of the most important points you need for your Hong Kong Legal System PCLL Conversion exam. The table of contents of our Hong Kong Legal System Notes & Model Exam Answers (Past Paper Answers) is shown below.

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Table of Contents for Hong Kong Legal System Notes


1.   Introduction.. 4

A.    How to use Conversion Notes. 4

B.    Abbreviations. 4

2.   Development of the Hong Kong Legal System (1842-1997) 5

A.    Background.. 5

i.          Supreme Court Ordinance 1873. 5

ii.         The Application of English Law Ordinance 1966. 5

iii.        Sino-British Joint Declaration 1984. 6

1)       Interpretive value. 6

iv.        Basic Law.. 6

3.   Sources of Hong Kong Law.. 7

A.    Law Previously in Force Article.8. 7

i.          Common Law & Equity. 7

ii.         Legislation. 7

iii.        Customary Law.. 7

B.    Special position in New Territories land.. 7

C.    Imperial enactments and prerogative power. 8

D.   Legislation and restriction on law making powers. 8

i.          Restrictions. 8

ii.         NPC powers to return a new enactment 9

iii.        Ambit of law making powers. 9

1)       National laws. 9

2)       External affairs. 9

E.    National laws. 10

i.          Relationship between the BL and Other National Laws. 10

ii.         Additions or deletions of national laws. 10

iii.        Supremacy of Basic Law.. 10

iv.        Cheung Lai Wah. 10

1)       Facts. 10

2)       Arguments. 10

3)       Held. 10

F.     State of Emergency under Article 18(4) 11

i.          Bill Of Rights Ordinance. 11

1)       Test 11

ii.         Basic Law article 18. 11

1)       Test 11

iii.        Restriction of freedom.. 11

1)       ICCPR. 12

G.    Restrictions under Article 23. 12

i.          Implementation. 12

ii.         ‘One country, two systems’ 12

iii.        National Security (Legislative Provisions) Bill 2003. 13

H.   NPCSC’s interpretative power 13

i.          Ng Ka Ling (1999) 13

1)       Test 13

2)       Held. 14

ii.         Criticism of Ng Ka Ling. 14

iii.        Lau Kong Yung (1999) 14

iv.        Chong Fung Yuen (2001) 15

1)       Substantial effect test 15

2)       Held. 15

v.         Present position. 15

vi.         PRC constitution. 15

4.   Doctrine of Stare Decisis. 15

i.          Decisions of the Privy Council 15

ii.         Decisions of the House of Lords. 15

iii.        Branching out 15

iv.        Role of the CFA. 16

v.        Statutory Interpretation in HK. 16

vi.        Use of Extrinsic Materials. 16

5.   Hong Kong Court System.. 16

A.    Hierarchy of courts. 16

i.          Magistrate Courts. 16

1)       Stare Decisis. 16

ii.         District Courts. 16

1)       Stare Decisis. 16

iii.        Court of First Instance (Part of High Court) 17

1)       Stare Decisis. 17

iv.        Court of Appeal (Part of High Court) 17

1)       Stare Decisis. 17

v.         Court of Final Appeal 17

1)       Stare Decisis. 18

B.    Role of the CFA.. 18

i.          Development of its own common law.. 18

ii.         Upholding the rule of law.. 18

iii.        Protecting the High degree of autonomy and enforcing human rights. 18

C.    Jurisdiction and its constitutional limits. 19

i.          Jurisdiction of the Region under Article 19 BL. 19

ii.         Continuity of previous restrictions. 19

iii.        NPCSC’s ultimate power of Interpretation – General Restriction. 20

iv.        How wide is the effect of the phrase “judgements previously rendered shall not be affected”?  20

v.         Can the CFA review mainland legislation ?. 20

1)       Ma Wai Kwan. 20

2)       Ng Ka Ling. 21

3)       Clarification of Ng Ka Ling. 21

D.   Appointment and tenure of Judges . 21

E.   Judicial Independence under the Basic Law . 21

F.   Judicial Immunity and judicial accountability. 21

i.          Prior to 1 July 1997. 21

ii.         What is the scope of the immunity after 1 July 1997?. 21

1)       Sirros 22

iii.        Judicial Accountability. 22

G.   Jury System . 22

6.   The Law Making Process   22

A.   Role of the HKSAR Government and the Chief Executive . 21

B.   Role of the Legislative Council . 21

C.   Law Making Process . 21

7.   Access to Justice   22

A.   Legal Aid . 21

i.        Forms of Legal Aid. 22

ii.        Operation of Legal Aid. 22

iii.        Characteristics of Legal Aid. 22

iv.        Legal aid and resources. 22

B.   Duty Lawyer Scheme . 21

C.   Legal Aid Services Council (“The Council”) . 21

D.   Independence of Legal Aid Authority . 21

E.   Regulating the Legal Profession. 21

8.   The Common law system and the PRC legal system: A Comparative Overview   22

A.    Meaning of Sovereignty. 22

i.          China’s position on self-determination. 23

B.    How the NPCSC interprets laws. 23

i.          Supreme People’s Court 24

C.    Interpretation approach in HK – Common Law interpretation.. 24

i.          Purposive approach. 25

ii.         Advantages of common law approach. 25

iii.        Purposive approach and interpreting the BL. 25

1)       Requirements. 26

2)       Difficulties. 26

D.    Conflicts in Interpretation.. 27

9.   The Civil and Criminal Justice System. 26

A.    Fundamentals of civil and criminal litigation.. 26

i.        Criminal Proceedings. 25

ii.        Civil Proceedings . 25

B.    Alternative Dispute Resolution.. 26

i.        Arbitration. 25

ii.        Mediation. 25

10.   Interface between the two systems. 26

A.    Concurrent Jurisdiction.. 26

B.    Mutual Judicial Assistance .. 27

C.    Enforcement of Judgments and Arbitral Awards.. 27

D.    Extradition/Rendition .. 27

E.    Cross-Border Crimes and Jurisdiction .. 27

F.    Cross-Border Insolvency .. 27

G.    Conflicts Between The Two Systems .. 27

H.    Admissibility Of Documents Issued In The Mainland .. 27

I.    Taking Evidence In The PRC.. 27

11.   Introduction to Legal Research: sources and Skills. 27

A.    Law Reports and Judgments- reported and unreported judgment.. 27

12.   Enforcing the law. 27

A.    Police Powers. 28

B.    Department of Public Prosecutions . 28

C.    Independent Commission Against Corruption. 28

D.    The Ombudsman. 28

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